Washington, D.C is the fourth most painful city in the nation to park, according to a new study released by INRIX on Thursday.

On average, D.C. motorists spend 65 hours per year looking for a parking spot at a cost of $1,367 per driver in wasted time, fuel and emissions. Drivers also paid an average of $18 to park for two hours within the city center. Overall, parking woes cost Washington, D.C. a total of $329 million.

The Bottom 5

New York motorists endured the worst challenges, spending an average of 107 hours per year trying to find a parking spot at a cost of $2,243 per driver. Los Angeles was second worst (85 hours/$1,785), San Francisco was third (83 hours/$1,735) and Seattle was fifth (58 hours/$1,205).

“Our country’s parking pain has widespread impact—on drivers, cities, the economy and the environment,” said Bob Pishue, senior economist at INRIX. “Thankfully, it’s a problem that can be improved through education, technology and partnerships.”

Overpaying to Avoid Tickets

Overall, American motorists spend an average of 17 hours per year at a cost of $345 per driver. As a result, Americans tend to overpay for parking to avoid tickets, adding an average of 13 hours annually—a total of $20 billion, the INRIX report said.

“The search for parking, overpayments and fines is a $96 billion problem in the U.S.,” Pishue said. “To lessen the burden parking pain has on our economy and quality of life, drivers, parking operators and cities must adopt smart parking solutions.”

To compile the study, INRIX combined its parking database with survey results from nearly 6,000 drivers in 10 U.S. cities. INRIX also produced studies for the United Kingdom and Germany.

Rage Against the Meter

Among U.S. survey respondents, 63 percent said they avoided driving to a destination because they had a hard time finding parking. Additionally, 39 percent reported avoiding shopping destinations because of a lack of parking, 27 percent didn’t drive to airports, 26 percent skipped leisure and sports activities, and 21 percent avoided commuting to work.

Twenty-three percent said they experience road rage as a result of their parking search.

No surprise here: nearly two-thirds of American motorists (61 percent) said trying to find a parking spot stressed them out, 42 percent missed an appointment and 34 percent abandoned a trip because of parking problems.